# Surveying And Principle Of Surveying In Civil Engineering

## Surveying And Principle Of Surveying In Civil Engineering

In this article i will explain the surveying defination.Surveying And Principle Of Surveying In Civil Engineering.Defination Of Surveying |Principle Of Surveying in pdf|Surveying And Principle Of Surveying |Surveying in Civil Engineering.Objectives of measurement/Surveying.Principles of Surveying in Civil Engineering.Surveying And Principle Of Suverying In Civil Engineering

Surveying is essentially conducted for activity the linear parameters still because the angular parameters for the institution of points by means that of that the plans and maps is ready. Some of the necessary instrumentation employed in measurement embrace surveying instrument, compass, auto-level, chains, tapes, leveling employees, total station, etc.

Surveying is that the most vital before and finally the engineering science works like planning and constructing roads, buildings, bridges, irrigation, facility systems, etc.
It primarily provides the essential framework for the conception, design, and execution of the development works.

Surveying The process of measurement includes each fortification and work. this can be as a result of the measurements are taken within the field and also the relevant mathematical calculations for the determination of the distances, angles, directions, elevations, locations, areas, and volumes ar tired the workplace.

## Objectives of measurement/Surveying

The main objectives of measurement is listed as follows

A. to see the relative position of varied points on top of, on, or at a lower place the surface of the planet.

B. to require the linear measurements and angular measurements between varied points.

C. to arrange the plans and maps i.e. for the illustration of a measured plot of the world on a horizontal plane.

D. to supply a basis for engineering science construction works and activities.

## Principles of Surveying in Civil Engineering

In general, measurement is predicated upon variety of principles (or guidelines) which may be listed as follows:
1-Engaging from Whole to half
2-Location of purpose by measuring from 2 Points of Reference
3-Consistency of labor
4-freelance Check
5-Accuracy needed

## Engaging from Whole to half

As the name itself implies, the survey work should be allotted from whole to half. this implies that once a vicinity is to be surveyed, 1st of all, a system of management points is established such it covers the whole space with a better degree of preciseness. After this, the minor management points and details ar additional established with a lesser degree of preciseness.
The main plan of this principle is to forestall the undue accumulation of errors and thereby management and localize the minor errors.If the survey is allotted from half to whole, the magnitudes of errors accumulated would be terribly high.
Example This principle is important in International Boundary Locating, Property Boundary Locating, etc.

### Location of purpose by measuring From 2 Points of Reference

On the premise of this principle, the relative position of the specified points to be surveyed should be set by taking the measuring from a minimum of 2 (preferably three) points of reference, such the position of the reference points has already been mounted antecedently.
Let R be the purpose whose location is to be mounted and P and alphabetic character be the 2 reference points whose positions have already been mounted. The position of the purpose R is determined by anyone of the above-shown ways within the figure.

### Consistency of labor

Another necessary principle of measurement is that the consistency of labor.
It should be noted that keeping consistency within the methodology, instrument, reading and noting observations, etc helps to realize the specified level of accuracy.

### freelance Check

According to this principle, each measuring that’s taken within the field should be re-checked by adopting an appropriate methodology of freelance field tests and observations so any mistake if gift isn’t passed abruptly.

### Accuracy needed

According to this principle of surveying; the correct methodology and instrument should be used for the survey work on the premise of the degree of accuracy needed.

### Uses of measurement/Surveying in Civil Engineering

Some of the necessary uses of measurement is listed as follows

A-it’s essential within the preparation of the topographic maps indicating the forests, hills, and alternative topographic options of a vicinity.

B-It’s very important for the design, designing, and construction of infrastructures like roads, bridges, pipeline systems, etc.

C-It’s necessary for the preparation of register maps for demarcating the boundaries and property lines.

D-It’s additionally essential for national security coming up with, military purpose, military strategic coming up with, etc.

E-Mine measurement is significant for the identification and exploration of mines and resources.

### Raja Numan

Hi, My name is Engr. Raja Numan author of Engineering Information Hub and I am a Civil Engineer by Profession and I've specialized in the field of Quantity Surveying, Land Surveying as QC Engineer in national and multinational companies of Pakistan & Saudi Arabia.

### One Comment

Check Also
Close
error: Content is protected !!