Civil Engineering

Stairs Types of stairs and Principles of Designing of Stairs

Stairs Types of stairs and Principles of Designing of Stairs

In this article, I explain the stairs parts of stairs Requirements of good stair types of stairs R.C.C Stairs Types according to layout, and principles of designing of stairs.

what are the stairs?

A series of steps. to connect the two floors of the building is called stairs. and the room in which the stair is made is called the staircase.

A series of steps is called a flight. the length of the flight is 3 to 15 steps. if the number of steps is more than 15, two flights are made and a horizontal surface to stay between the two flights is called landing. so as not to get tired while climbing the stair.

the horizontal distance of each step is called going. while the surface is called tread. and the vertical surface of the step is called Riser. the minimum size of tread is 10 to 12incehs and the minimum size of the riser is 6 to 9incehs.

The shape of normal steps is rectangular this is called the flier step. sometimes steps are also made at the middle of the landing site that one is triangular is called winder.

Parts of Stair

  • Flight
  • Waist
  • Landing
  • Fliers
  • Winders
  • Step
  • Tread
  • Going
  • Riser
  • Pitch
  • Soffit
  • Handrail
  • Baluster
  • Newel post
  • Headroom
  • Nosing
  • Stringer

Requirements of Good Stair

A good stair has some requirements

stair should be in the middle of the building.

All steps of the stair should be the same shape and size.

The slope of the stair should be from 25 degrees to 40 degrees.

The width of the stair should be such that two persons can easily go and come from downside to upside at the same time and the width for this purpose is a minimum of 3ft.

The height of the headroom is a minimum of 25 meters.

The height of the handrail from steps should be 75cm to 85cm.

The number of steps is not more than 15 and not less than 3meter.

The materials used in the stair is strong and durable.

There should be a proper arrangement of air and light.

Principle of Designing of Stair 

When designing any leader it should be kept in mind that the design should be so simple that the users should not face any problem but should be comfortable as possible. some principles of designing stairs,

1 Ratio Between Tread and Rise

learn more

Working Out Quantities of U Shaped Wall

Calculate The Quantity of Items of The Stair Case

1T+2R=54 TO 60CM


this formula shows that if the value of T is reduced then the value of R has to be increased.

2 Slope of Stair

The slope of stairs is minimum 25to 40degrees

3 Width of Stair

The width of stairs is minimum such that the persons can easily be going and come pas for this purpose is width 75cm. more people use for more width.

4 Length of Flight

The length of the flight of stairs should not be too long as to climb a long time. The number of flights is more than 15 and not less than 3.

5 Width of landing

In no case should the width of the landing be less than the width of the stair In some cases, the width of the landing is kept slightly higher than the width of the stair.

6 Hand-rail and baluster

It is very important to have fences and handles for the convenience and safety of the users. For this purpose, the height from step to hand should be 5cm.

Types of Stairs According to Layout

Some types of stairs in according to layout

1-Straight flight stair   2- Quarter Turn Stair

3-Half Turn Stair    4-Geometrical Stair

5-Bifurcating Stair  6-Circular stair

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1-Straight Flight Stair

If space is available for the stair in the room of a long strip, then a straight stair is designed in which there is no bend. and if the height of the building is height and more steps are required and a landing made in the middle then designed straight.

2-Quarter Turn Stair

when the space for a stair is available in the building at some straight and some left or right angle of 90 degrees, then the designed in the same shape which is called quarter-turn stair.

3-Half Turn Stair

When stair in a building is available in a rectangular shape the two flights of the stair are designed in such a way that the person climbing takes a 180 degrees turn. landing is provided in stairs at the end of a flight. this stoping or landing space is equal to the width of the stair in front of both flights.

this type of stair is commonly seen, if there is no space b/w both flights in then this type is called dog-legged stair.

if their inner sides are at some distance in the plan, then this stair is called Open Newal Stair.

4- Geometric Stair

A stair that has more the one flight and the place at the turning points b/w each of the two flights are made of steps equal to landing it is called a geometric stair.

5-Bifurcating Stair 

A stair that scatters on two or more two sides is called a bifurcation stair.

6-Circular Stair

if the shape in the building is suitable for a square shape or round staircase, in addition to this a stair is also made for creating beauty in the building. in this case, the person climbs up and down in a circular or spiral movement.

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Raja Numan

Hi, My name is Engr. Raja Numan author of Engineering Information Hub and I am a Civil Engineer by Profession and I've specialized in the field of Quantity Surveying, Land Surveying as QC Engineer in national and multinational companies of Pakistan & Saudi Arabia.

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