Integral Bridge Types of Integral Bridge Advantages And Limitations
Integral Bridge Basic Types of Integral Bridge 
Integral Bridge Types of Integral Bridge Advantages And Limitations
Integral islands are constructed without any joints between spans or between spans and abutments. The superstructure related to the concrete along with abutments acts as a single structural elementThe superstructure related to the concrete along with abutments acts as a single structural element. Integral Bridge Types of Integral Bridge Advantages And Limitations.
Integral Bridge
Integral islands are constructed without any joints between spans or between spans and abutments. Integral Bridge Types of Integral Bridge Advantages And Limitations
Parts and Location of Integral Bridge
Basic Types of Integral Bridge
The integral bridge is basic four types of grounded and abutments are mentioned below

Integral Ground With The Frame Abutments

Integral Ground With Flexible Support Abutments

Integral Ground with Bank Pad Abutments

Integral Ground with SemiIntegral

End Screen Abutments Integral Ground
1 Integral Ground With The Frame Abutments
The Integral ground with The frame abutments reacts like a portal frame where moments shear force and axial loads transfer directly to the supporting structure from the Bottom of the ground. These abutments are used for backfill behind it like retaining walls. Spread footing or bedded wall footing is preferred as the foundation for the frame abutments. When there’s thermal expansion or compression, the shafts of the sundeck will reply and produce vertical relegation. To help the relegation of the foundation, the abutments must be erected with some inflexibility. Indeed if there are intermediate supports portal type configuration doesn’t change. The hard concrete abutment is stiff which is not suitable in this case. The use of sword distance piles is the stylish volition for this type of abutment. Soil pressure behind the abutments should also be considered in the design.
2 Integral Ground With Flexible Support Abutments
The posthole should give enough space for the pile to move horizontally during thermal expansion or compression. This will exclude the soil and foundation commerce. The hole comprises precast concrete rings for larger piles, and UPVC, or polyethylene pipelines for lower piles. A conduit is handed from the end screen wall to check the continuity of the pile inside the post hole. Integral Ground with Flexible Support Abutments The holes around piles shouldn’t be filled with anything and the holes shouldn’t have contact with the end screen wall also only the movement of the pile inside the hole is possible. If the soil in front of the abutment is of perpendicular facing also underpinning should be handed to the earth.
3 Integral Ground with Bank Pad Abutments
In this integral stiff portal, the Frame can be an arrangement of other types which is ground with bank pad abutments In this type, the end supports are completely integrated with the sundeck shafts but these supports aren’t fixed in the ground. They’re allowed to slide and rotate. These supports can slide during thermal expansions or compression and they also can rotate due to bending moment from the sundeck shafts. This sliding and gyration may affect the bearing capacity of the soil, to avoid this bearing pressure of soil at the utility limit state are kept lower than the normal static values. This bank pad abutment makes an endscreen wall backside filled with backfill The range of the endscreen wall is equal to the range of the pavement above it. when the bank pad are erected on that pile foundation then the considered soil and the end screen wall.
End Screen Abutments
Integral Ground with Semiintegral End Screen Abutments In this case also end screen wall and sundeck shafts are integral with each other but the end screen wall doesn’t give support to the sundeck shafts. Structure with Bearings that can accommodate vertical relegation is handed as support to the sundeck shafts. Since the support is separate the soil substructure commerce is negligible in this case.
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Basic Principles Of Pile And Classifications Of The Pile Foundations
Advantages of Integral Islands

The advantages of integral islands over normal islands are as follows

When compared to conventional islands, construction costs, and conservation costs are much lower.

Construction of integral islands is simple and rapidfire. lower forbearance restriction due to the elimination of comportments and expansion joints.

still, the foundation of old ground can be used as the foundation for integral ground, If the integral ground is constructed in place of being old ground.

Hence the cost of design reduces. Elimination of water leakage on critical structural rudiments can be done using a drainage subcaste handed behind the integral abutments.

The vehicle riding quality is very comfortable and smooth on the integral ground because there is no expansion joint.
Disadvantage of Integral Islands

The following are some limitations to be considered while designing integral islands.

Integral islands aren’t suitable in zones where there’s a chance of expansion/ compression of further than 51 mm during temperature variations.

They aren’t preferred when topsoil or dikes are of poor strength.

the figure of the ground and material used for the construction play a crucial part in the case of integral islands.

They’re responsible for the relegation effects on the ground.

There’s a chance of conformation of plastic hinges in piles due to high stresses of expansion and condensation resulting in the reduction of the axial cargo capacity of piles.

Must consider This point when the foundation is designed

Integral abutments are suitable for islands up to the length of 40 m for sword girder islands and lengths up to 50 m for concrete girder islands.
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