Civil EngineeringConstruction InformationStructural Engineering

Types of Structure Foundations and Details

Different Types Of Foundations with details
What square measures the Foundations?

The lowest made part of the building on that the building is established is termed the inspiration.

What is the aim of the foundation?

Foundation has the subsequent purpose,

To uniformly distribute the load of the building over the underground space.
To produce institution within the entire structure of the building.
To avoid the soaring of pillars and supports of the building.
To expend the entire weight of the building’s entire structure over a bigger space, therefore the intensity of weight on the unit space might not exceed the endurance (toughness).
To provide sleek chairs and established floors to the building.
Aims of underground construction of the inspiration

Nature ground is typically soft close to the bottom surfaces {in that|during which|within which} organic matters exit is large amount as a result of which there’s a risk of settlement of the inspiration. That’s why the inspiration is formed underground when removing clay. within the square measureas wherever there are arduous look rather than clay there foundation is create over the bottom solely. truly once the load of the building is transferred to the inspiration than to the world. the edges conjointly get compression. arduous rocks sustain one-sided compression however clay gets settled if the inspiration is constructed underground, there’s no risk.

Settled of soil particles
The horizontal movement of underground soil
Decrease in the house among underground soil particles
The emergence of cracks in the undergrounds layer
Weight of unequal masonry
Variation in wet beneath the foundation
Growth of roots of trees
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Basic Information For Civil Engineers


There square measure various factors moving the {selection} selection of foundation.

Load & its nature
Bearing capability of soil


Foundation square measure primarily classified into 2 varieties

1 shallow foundation
2 deep foundations


This type of foundation is employed each for walls and separate foundations for one column or common foundations. Their construction is straightforward. typically their depth is a smaller amount than two times of breadth of foundation.


1 unfold foundation

2 grillage foundation

3 Stepped foundations

This type of foundation is employed each for wall and separate foundation for one column or common foundation for 2 or quite columns. Some varieties of unfold foundation.

Wall footinG

Isolated footing for a column

Cantilever footing

Continuous footing

They are designed in those places wherever the bottom is weak as wells load of building acts on one purpose. they’ll either be of wood or steel. These varieties of foundations square measure terribly appropriate for terribly significant buildings, as an example, mill buildings or for minarets, etc.


If the bottom isn’t even tipped (of slope), such varieties of foundation is meant there. it’s the stepped foundation solely, that respects to structure .it is distributed in very little length rather than continuous footing, in line with the depth to avoid the wastage of materials yet deep excavation…


When the bottom is weak, and also the building features a high load, the inspiration is exhausted within the whole area rather than creating it terribly broad to minimize the load over unit space. this sort is appropriate for multistory buildings.


If the building is standing on the column yet because the bearing capability of the bottom is low, than to style this variety of foundation, the realm of the building is cleared by removing clay. Than instead arches square measure created between each two-column


Pile foundation
Well foundation
Caisson foundations

What is pile foundation?

A pile foundation is outlined as a series of columns made or inserted into the bottom to transmit hundreds to a lower level of dirt. A pile could be a long cylinder created from robust material, like concrete. … Piles transfer the masses from structures to arduous strata, rocks, or soil with high bearing capability.

What is Well foundation?

Well foundation could be a form of deep foundation that is mostly provided below the water level for bridges. Cassions or well are in use for foundations of bridges and different structures since the Roman and Mughal periods. The term ‘cassion’ springs from the French word Caisse which implies box or chest.

what is Caisson Foundation?

Caisson foundations, conjointly called pier foundations, square measure ready-made hollow substructures designed to be made on or close to the surface of the bottom, ruined to the required depth so full of concrete, therefore ultimately turning into associate integral a part of the permanent structure

What is the distinction between caisson and pile?

Caissons square measure watertight structures created from wood, steel, or concrete designed on top of the bottom level so sunken into the bottom. … Caisson is golf shot a box underwater and gushing it with concrete. Pile could be a column of fabric driven by a piledriver.

Raja Numan

Hi, My name is Engr. Raja Numan author of Engineering Information Hub and I am a Civil Engineer by Profession and I've specialized in the field of Quantity Surveying, Land Surveying as QC Engineer in national and multinational companies of Pakistan & Saudi Arabia.

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